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UK Cilia Network

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Prof Paul Chapple

Professor of Molecular Cell Biology

Department  William Harvey Research Institute
  Queen Mary University of London
Telephone  +44 (0)20 7882 6242
Email  j.p.chapple@qmul.ac.uk
Homepage  http://www.whri.qmul.ac.uk/staff-all/staff-research/176...

Research Interests

Dr Paul Chapple was awarded a PhD by University College London in 1997, this investigated the physiological and evolutionary significance of Hsp70 chaperones in a marine organism. He then worked for eight years as a Postdoctoral Researcher in the laboratory of Professor Michael Cheetham at the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, where he researched the cell biology of chaperone proteins involved in neurodegeneration and blindness. In 2004 he moved to the KCL Institute of Psychiatry to work with Dr Jean-Marc Gallo on the Alzheimer’s protein Tau. Dr Chapple became a Lecturer at the William Harvey Research Institute in 2006, was promoted to Reader in 2010 and Professor in 2014. He serves as a reviewer and committee member for grant-giving bodies, including current membership of BBSRC Committee D and previous membership of the Society for Endocrinology Science Committee.

Cilia-related Research :cChaperones and environmental modulation of primary cilia function:
Primary cilia play a role in the coordination of cellular signalling pathways, with dysfunction associated with genetic syndromes and other disease. We are investigating the requirement for chaperones in cilia function and mechanisms that regulate cilia response to extracellular stressors.
G protein-coupled receptor trafficking:
GPCRs respond to a wide range of extracellular stimuli and are important drug targets. We are elucidating the chaperones involved in GPCR quality control and identifying strategies to rescue cell surface expression of intracellular retained receptor mutants. This research is relevant to pathologies including monogenic obesity and retinal degeneration.

Key Publications

CHAPPLE JP, Bradshaw TY, Romano LEL, Duncan EJ, Nethisinghe S, Abeti R, Michael GJ, Giunti P and Vermeer S (2016). A reduction in Drp1 mediated fission compromises mitochondrial health in autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix Saguenay. Oxford University Press (Oup): Policy B - Oxford Open Option B  Human Molecular Genetics  vol. 25, (15) 3232-3244. 10.1093/hmg/ddw173

Prodromou NV, Thompson CL, Osborn DPS, Cogger KF, Ashworth R, Knight MM, Beales PL and Chapple JP (2012). Heat shock induces rapid resorption of primary cilia. Journal of Cell Science  vol. 125, (18) 4297-4305. 10.1242/jcs.100545

Girard M, Lariviere R, Parfitt DA, Deane EC, Gaudet R, Nossova N, Blondeau F, Prenosil G, Vermeulen EGM, Duchen MR, Richter A, Shoubridge EA, Gehring K, McKinney RA, Brais B, Chapple JP and McPherson PS (2012). Mitochondrial dysfunction and Purkinje cell loss in autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS). Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America  vol. 109, (5) 1661-1666. 10.1073/pnas.1113166109

Meimaridou E, Gooljar SB, Ramnarace N, Anthonypillai L, Clark AJL and Chapple JP (2011). The cytosolic chaperone Hsc70 promotes traffic to the cell surface of intracellular retained melanocortin-4 receptor mutants. Mol Endocrinol  vol. 25, (9) 1650-1660. 10.1210/me.2011-1020

Parfitt DA, Michael GJ, Vermeulen EGM, Prodromou NV, Webb TR, Gallo J-M, Cheetham ME, Nicoll WS, Blatch GL and Chapple JP (2009). The ataxia protein sacsin is a functional co-chaperone that protects against polyglutamine-expanded ataxin-1. Hum Mol Genet  vol. 18, (9) 1556-1565. 10.1093/hmg/ddp067

2018

Parkinson MH, Bartmann AP, Clayton LMS, Nethisinghe S, Pfundt R, Chapple JP, Reilly MM, Manji H, Wood NJ, Bremner F and Giunti P (2018). Optical coherence tomography in autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay. Brain  vol. 141, (4) 989-999. 10.1093/brain/awy028

2017

Thompson CL, Plant JC, Wann AK, Bishop CL, Novak P, Mitchison HM, Beales PL, Chapple JP and Knight MM (2017). Chondrocyte expansion is associated with loss of primary cilia and disrupted hedgehog signalling. Eur Cell Mater  vol. 34, 128-141. 10.22203/eCM.v034a09

Schwarz N, Lane A, Jovanovic K, Parfitt DA, Aguila M, Thompson CL, da Cruz L, Coffey PJ, Chapple JP, Hardcastle AJ and Cheetham ME (2017). Arl3 and RP2 regulate the trafficking of ciliary tip kinesins. Hum Mol Genet  vol. 26, (17) 10.1093/hmg/ddx245

Zhang J, Dalbay MT, Luo X, Vrij E, Barbieri D, Moroni L, de Bruijn JD, van Blitterswijk CA, Chapple JP, Knight MM and Yuan H (2017). Topography of calcium phosphate ceramics regulates primary cilia length and TGF receptor recruitment associated with osteogenesis. Acta Biomater  vol. 57, 487-497. 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.04.004

Schwarz N, Lane A, Jovanovic K, Parfitt DA, Aguila M, Thompson CL, da Cruz L, Coffey PJ, Chapple JP, Hardcastle AJ and Cheetham ME (2017). Arl3 and RP2 regulate the trafficking of ciliary tip kinesins. Oxford University Press  Hum Mol Genet  vol. 26, (13) 2480-2492. 10.1093/hmg/ddx143

2016

O'Toole SM and Chapple JP (2016). Primary cilia: a link between hormone signalling and endocrine-related cancers? Biochem Soc Trans  vol. 44, (5) 1227-1234. 10.1042/BST20160149

CHAPPLE JP, Bradshaw TY, Romano LEL, Duncan EJ, Nethisinghe S, Abeti R, Michael GJ, Giunti P and Vermeer S (2016). A reduction in Drp1 mediated fission compromises mitochondrial health in autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix Saguenay. Oxford University Press (Oup): Policy B - Oxford Open Option B  Human Molecular Genetics  vol. 25, (15) 3232-3244. 10.1093/hmg/ddw173

2015

Thompson CL, Patel R, Kelly T-AN, Wann AKT, Hung CT, Chapple JP and Knight MM (2015). Hedgehog signalling does not stimulate cartilage catabolism and is inhibited by Interleukin-1? Arthritis Research & Therapy  vol. 17, (1) 10.1186/s13075-015-0891-z

Blumkin L, Bradshaw T, Michelson M, Kopler T, Dahari D, Lerman-Sagie T, Lev D, Chapple JP and Leshinsky-Silver E (2015). Molecular and functional studies of retinal degeneration as a clinical presentation of SACS-related disorder. Eur J Paediatr Neurol  vol. 19, (4) 472-476. 10.1016/j.ejpn.2015.02.005

Dalbay MT, Thorpe SD, Connelly JT, Chapple JP and Knight MM (2015). Adipogenic Differentiation of hMSCs is Mediated by Recruitment of IGF-1r Onto the Primary Cilium Associated With Cilia Elongation. Stem Cells  vol. 33, (6) 1952-1961. 10.1002/stem.1975

Thompson CL, Wann AKT, Chapple JP, Poole CA and Knight MM (2015). Competitive interactions between hedgehog and cytokine signalling: crosstalk at the chondrocyte primary cilium? International Journal of Experimental Pathology  vol. 96, (2) A8-A8.

Duncan EJ, Cheetham ME, Chapple JP and van der Spuy J (2015). The role of HSP70 and its co-chaperones in protein misfolding, aggregation and disease. Subcell Biochem  vol. 78, 243-273. 10.1007/978-3-319-11731-7_12

2014

Athanasiou D, Bevilacqua D, Aguila M, McCulley C, Kanuga N, Iwawaki T, Chapple JP and Cheetham ME (2014). The co-chaperone and reductase ERdj5 facilitates rod opsin biogenesis and quality control. Hum Mol Genet  vol. 23, (24) 6594-6606. 10.1093/hmg/ddu385

Wann AKT, Chapple JP and Knight MM (2014). The primary cilium influences interleukin-1?-induced NF?B signalling by regulating IKK activity. Cell Signal  vol. 26, (8) 1735-1742. 10.1016/j.cellsig.2014.04.004

Thompson CL, Chapple JP and Knight MM (2014). Primary cilia disassembly down-regulates mechanosensitive hedgehog signalling: a feedback mechanism controlling ADAMTS-5 expression in chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage  vol. 22, (3) 490-498. 10.1016/j.joca.2013.12.016

2013

Wann AK, Thompson CL, Chapple JP and Knight MM (2013). Interleukin-1? sequesters hypoxia inducible factor 2? to the primary cilium. Cilia  vol. 2, (1) 10.1186/2046-2530-2-17

Meimaridou E, Hughes CR, Kowalczyk J, Guasti L, Chapple JP, King PJ, Chan LF, Clark AJL and Metherell LA (2013). Familial glucocorticoid deficiency: New genes and mechanisms. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology  vol. 371, (1-2) 195-200. 10.1016/j.mce.2012.12.010

Meimaridou E, Hughes CR, Kowalczyk J, Guasti L, Chapple JP, King PJ, Chan LF, Clark AJL and Metherell LA (2013). Familial glucocorticoid deficiency: New genes and mechanisms. Mol Cell Endocrinol  vol. 371, (1-2) 195-200. 10.1016/j.mce.2012.12.010

2012

Prodromou NV, Thompson CL, Osborn DPS, Cogger KF, Ashworth R, Knight MM, Beales PL and Chapple JP (2012). Heat shock induces rapid resorption of primary cilia. Journal of Cell Science  vol. 125, (18) 4297-4305. 10.1242/jcs.100545

Athanasiou D, Kosmaoglou M, Kanuga N, Novoselov SS, Paton AW, Paton JC, Chapple JP and Cheetham ME (2012). BiP prevents rod opsin aggregation. Mol Biol Cell  vol. 23, (18) 3522-3531. 10.1091/mbc.E12-02-0168

Chahal HS, Trivellin G, Leontiou CA, Alband N, Fowkes RC, Tahir A, Igreja SC, Chapple JP, Jordan S, Lupp A, Schulz S, Ansorge O, Karavitaki N, Carlsen E, Wass JAH, Grossman AB and Korbonits M (2012). Somatostatin analogs modulate AIP in somatotroph adenomas: the role of the ZAC1 pathway. J Clin Endocrinol Metab  vol. 97, (8) E1411-E1420. 10.1210/jc.2012-1111

Meimaridou E, Kowalczyk J, Guasti L, Hughes CR, Wagner F, Frommolt P, Nürnberg P, Mann NP, Banerjee R, Saka HN, Chapple JP, King PJ, Clark AJL and Metherell LA (2012). Mutations in NNT encoding nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase cause familial glucocorticoid deficiency. Nat Genet  vol. 44, (7) 740-742. 10.1038/ng.2299

Girard M, Lariviere R, Parfitt DA, Deane EC, Gaudet R, Nossova N, Blondeau F, Prenosil G, Vermeulen EGM, Duchen MR, Richter A, Shoubridge EA, Gehring K, McKinney RA, Brais B, Chapple JP and McPherson PS (2012). Mitochondrial dysfunction and Purkinje cell loss in autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS). Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America  vol. 109, (5) 1661-1666. 10.1073/pnas.1113166109

2011

Meimaridou E, Gooljar SB, Ramnarace N, Anthonypillai L, Clark AJL and Chapple JP (2011). The cytosolic chaperone Hsc70 promotes traffic to the cell surface of intracellular retained melanocortin-4 receptor mutants. Mol Endocrinol  vol. 25, (9) 1650-1660. 10.1210/me.2011-1020

Nethisinghe S, Clayton L, Vermeer S, Chapple JP, Reilly M, Bremner F and Giunti P (2011). Retinal Imaging in Autosomal Recessive Spastic Ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay. Neuro-Ophthalmology  vol. 35, (4) 197-201. 10.3109/01658107.2011.595043

2010

Igreja S, Chahal HS, King P, Bolger GB, Srirangalingam U, Guasti L, Chapple JP, Trivellin G, Gueorguiev M, Guegan K, Stals K, Khoo B, Kumar AV, Ellard S, Grossman AB, Korbonits M and International FIPA Consortium (2010). Characterization of aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) mutations in familial isolated pituitary adenoma families. Hum Mutat  vol. 31, (8) 950-960. 10.1002/humu.21292

Chahal HS, Chapple JP, Frohman LA, Grossman AB and Korbonits M (2010). Clinical, genetic and molecular characterization of patients with familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). Trends Endocrinol Metab  vol. 21, (7) 419-427. 10.1016/j.tem.2010.02.007

2009

Sen Gupta P, Prodromou NV and Chapple JP (2009). Can faulty antennae increase adiposity? The link between cilia proteins and obesity. J Endocrinol  vol. 203, (3) 327-336. 10.1677/JOE-09-0116

Storr HL, Kind B, Parfitt DA, Chapple JP, Lorenz M, Koehler K, Huebner A and Clark AJL (2009). Deficiency of ferritin heavy-chain nuclear import in triple a syndrome implies nuclear oxidative damage as the primary disease mechanism. Mol Endocrinol  vol. 23, (12) 2086-2094. 10.1210/me.2009-0056

Parfitt DA, Michael GJ, Vermeulen EGM, Prodromou NV, Webb TR, Gallo J-M, Cheetham ME, Nicoll WS, Blatch GL and Chapple JP (2009). The ataxia protein sacsin is a functional co-chaperone that protects against polyglutamine-expanded ataxin-1. Hum Mol Genet  vol. 18, (9) 1556-1565. 10.1093/hmg/ddp067

Chan LF, Webb TR, Chung T-T, Meimaridou E, Cooray SN, Guasti L, Chapple JP, Egertová M, Elphick MR, Cheetham ME, Metherell LA and Clark AJL (2009). MRAP and MRAP2 are bidirectional regulators of the melanocortin receptor family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  vol. 106, (15) 6146-6151. 10.1073/pnas.0809918106

Webb TR, Chan L, Cooray SN, Cheetham ME, Chapple JP and Clark AJL (2009). Distinct melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein domains are required for melanocortin 2 receptor interaction and promotion of receptor trafficking. Endocrinology  vol. 150, (2) 720-726. 10.1210/en.2008-0941

Meimaridou E, Gooljar SB and Chapple JP (2009). From hatching to dispatching: the multiple cellular roles of the Hsp70 molecular chaperone machinery. J Mol Endocrinol  vol. 42, (1) 1-9. 10.1677/JME-08-0116

2008

Chapple JP, Bros-Facer V, Butler R and Gallo JM (2008). Focal distortion of the nuclear envelope by huntingtin aggregates revealed by lamin immunostaining. Neurosci Lett  vol. 447, (2-3) 172-174. 10.1016/j.neulet.2008.09.075

Chung TT, Webb TR, Chan LF, Cooray SN, Metherell LA, King PJ, Chapple JP and Clark AJL (2008). The majority of adrenocorticotropin receptor (melanocortin 2 receptor) mutations found in familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 1 lead to defective trafficking of the receptor to the cell surface. J Clin Endocrinol Metab  vol. 93, (12) 4948-4954. 10.1210/jc.2008-1744

Leontiou CA, Gueorguiev M, van der Spuy J, Quinton R, Lolli F, Hassan S, Chahal HS, Igreja SC, Jordan S, Rowe J, Stolbrink M, Christian HC, Wray J, Bishop-Bailey D, Berney DM, Wass JAH, Popovic V, Ribeiro-Oliveira A, Gadelha MR, Monson JP, Akker SA, Davis JRE, Clayton RN and Yoshi (2008). The role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene in familial and sporadic pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab  vol. 93, (6) 2390-2401. 10.1210/jc.2007-2611

Cooray SN, Almiro Do Vale I, Leung K-Y, Webb TR, Chapple JP, Egertová M, Cheetham ME, Elphick MR and Clark AJL (2008). The melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein exists as a homodimer and is essential for the function of the melanocortin 2 receptor in the mouse y1 cell line. Endocrinology  vol. 149, (4) 1935-1941. 10.1210/en.2007-1463

2007

CHAPPLE JP, Gallo JM, Cooper TA, Dev A, Martin TR and Anthony K (2007). Expression, localization and Tau Exon 10 splicing activity of the brain RNA-binding protein TNRC4. Human Molecular Genetics  vol. 16, (22) 2760-2769. 10.1093/hmg/ddm233

CHAPPLE JP, Dev A, Anthony K, Cooper TA, Rodriguez-Martin T and Gallo J-M (2007). Expression, localization and tau exon 10 splicing activity of the brain RNA-binding protein TNRC4. Human Molecular Genetics  vol. 16, (22) 2760-2769. 10.1093/hmg/ddm233

Howarth JL, Kelly S, Keasey MP, Glover C, Lee Y-B, Mitrophanous K, Chapple JP, Gallo JM, Cheetham ME and Uney JB (2007). Hsp40 Molecules That Target to the Ubiquitin-proteasome System Decrease Inclusion Formation in Models of Polyglutamine Disease. Mol Ther  vol. 15, (6) 1100-1105. 10.1038/sj.mt.6300163

Howarth JL, Kelly S, Keasey MP, Glover CPJ, Lee YB, Mitrophanous K, Chapple JP, Gallo JM, Cheetham ME and Uney JB (2007). Hsp40 molecules that target to the ubiquitin-proteasome system decrease inclusion formation in models of polyglutamine disease. Mol Ther  vol. 15, (6) 1100-1105. 10.1038/sj.mt.6300163

Hooper C, Chapple JP, Lovestone S and Killick R (2007). The Notch-1 intracellular domain is found in sub-nuclear bodies in SH-SY5Y neuroblastomas and in primary cortical neurons. Neurosci Lett  vol. 415, (2) 135-139. 10.1016/j.neulet.2007.01.049

Nicoll WS, Botha M, McNamara C, Schlange M, Pesce ER, Boshoff A, Ludewig MH, Zimmermann R, Cheetham ME, Chapple JP and Blatch GL (2007). Cytosolic and ER J-domains of mammalian and parasitic origin can functionally interact with DnaK. Int J Biochem Cell B  vol. 39, (4) 736-751. 10.1016/j.biocel.2006.11.006

2006

Hooper C, Tavassoli M, Chapple JP, Uwanogho D, Goodyear R, Melino G, Lovestone S and Killick R (2006). TAp73 isoforms antagonize Notch signalling in SH-SY5Y neuroblastomas and in primary neurones. J Neurochem  vol. 99, (3) 989-999. 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.04142.x

Storr H, Koehler K, Huebner A, Chapple JP and Clark AJL (2006). A candidate interacting protein for the nuclear pore protein ALADIN: a potential pathogenic mechanism for the triple A syndrome. Horm Res  vol. 65, 16-16.

CHAPPLE JP, Adamson P, Matter K, Bailey TA, Hardcastle AJ and Grayson C (2006). Organization on the plasma membrane of the retinitis pigmentosa protein RP2: investigation of association with detergent-resistant membranes and polarized sorting. Biochem J  vol. 372, (pt 2) 427-433. 10.1042/BJ20021475

2005

CHAPPLE JP, Fisher S, Tan PL, Phillips HM, Leitch CC, Eliot MM, Copp AJ, Katsanis N, Dollfus H, Kemp DT, Tada M, Ross AJ, May-Simera H, Eichers ER, Kai M, Forge A, Beales PL, Leroux MR, Murdoch JN, Henderson DJ, Munro PM, Jagger DJ, Hill J and Lupski JR (2005). Disruption of Bardet-Biedl syndrome ciliary proteins perturbs planar cell polarity in vertebrates. Nature Genetics  vol. 37, (10) 1135-1140. 10.1038/ng1644

CHAPPLE JP, Cheetham ME, Westhoff B, Van Der Spuy SJ and Hohfeld J (2005). HSJ1 Is a Neuronal Shuttling Factor for the Sorting of Chaperone Clients to the Proteasome. Current Biology  vol. 15, (11) 1058-1064. 10.1016/j.cub.2005.04.058

David A, CHAPPLE JP, Cooray S, Metherell LA, Ruschendorf F and Becker C (2005). Mutations in MRAP, encoding a new interacting partner of the ACTH receptor, cause familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 2. Nature Genetics  vol. 37, (2) 166-170. 10.1038/ng1501

Evans RJ, Chapple JP, Grayson C, Hardcastle AJ and Cheetham ME (2005). Assay and functional analysis of the ARL3 effector RP2 involved in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa. Methods Enzymol  vol. 404, 468-480. 10.1016/S0076-6879(05)04041-3

CHAPPLE JP, Banerjee R, Gaasenbeek M, Cheetham ME, Ocaka L and Inglis-Broadgate SL (2005). Isolation and characterization of murine Cds (CDP-diacylglycerol synthase) 1 and 2. Gene  vol. 356, 19-31. 10.1016/j.gene.2005.04.037

CHAPPLE JP, Cheetham ME, Van Der SJ and Mendes HF (2005). Mechanisms of cell death in rhodopsin retinitis pigmentosa: implications for therapy. Trends Mol Med  vol. 11, (4) 177-185. 10.1016/j.molmed.2005.02.007

2004

CHAPPLE JP, Cheetham ME, Blatch GL, Longshaw VM and Balda MS (2004). Nuclear translocation of the Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein mSTI1 is regulated by cell cycle kinases. J Cell Sci  vol. 117, (pt 5) 701-710.

CHAPPLE JP, Cheetham ME, Poopalasundaram S and Van Der SJ (2004). Neuronal DnaJ proteins HSJ1a and HSJ1b: a role in linking the Hsp70 chaperone machine to the ubiquitin-proteasome system? Biochem Soc Trans  vol. 32, (pt4) 640-642. 10.1042/BST0320640

CHAPPLE JP, Holder GE, Egan CA, Grayson C, Dandekar SS and Ebenezer ND (2004). An atypical phenotype of macular and peripapillary retinal atrophy caused by a mutation in the RP2 gene. Br. J Opthalmol  vol. 88, (4) 528-532.

2003

Chapple JP and Cheetham ME (2003). The chaperone environment at the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum can modulate rhodopsin processing and inclusion formation. J Biol Chem  vol. 278, (21) 19087-19094. 10.1074/jbc.M212349200

CHAPPLE JP and Cheetham ME (2003). The Chaperone Environment at the Cytoplasmic Face of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Can Modulate Rhodopsin Processing and Inclusion Formation. Journal of Biological Chemistry  vol. 278, (21) 19087-19094. 10.1074/jbc.M212349200

2002

Chapple JP, Hardcastle AJ, Grayson C, Willison KR and Cheetham ME (2002). Delineation of the plasma membrane targeting domain of the X-linked retinitis pigmentosa protein RP2. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  vol. 43, (6) 2015-2020.

van der Spuy J, Chapple JP, Clark BJ, Luthert PJ, Sethi CS and Cheetham ME (2002). The Leber congenital amaurosis gene product AIPL1 is localized exclusively in rod photoreceptors of the adult human retina. Hum Mol Genet  vol. 11, (7) 823-831. 10.1093/hmg/11.7.823

CHAPPLE JP, Willison KR, Grayson C, Cheetham ME, Hardcastle AJ and Webster AR (2002). In vitro analysis of aminoglycoside therapy for the Arg120stop nonsense mutation in RP2 patients. J Med Genet  vol. 39, (1) 62-67.

CHAPPLE JP, Lewis SA, Willison KR, Bartolini F, Bhamidipati A and Grayson C (2002). Localization in the human retina of the X-linked retinitis pigmentosa protein RP2, its homologue cofactor C and the RP2 interacting protein Arl3. Hum Mol Genet  vol. 11, (24) 3065-3074.

2001

CHAPPLE JP, Grayson C, Saliba RS, Hardcastle AJ, Van Der SJ and Cheetham ME (2001). Unfolding retinal dystrophies: a role for molecular chaperones? Trends Mol Med  vol. 7, (9) 414-421. 10.1016/S1471-4914(01)02103-7

CHAPPLE JP, Cheetham ME, Blatch GL and Choglay AA (2001). Identification and characterization of a human mitochondrial homologue of the bacterial co-chaperone GrpE. Gene  vol. 267, (1) 125-134. 10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00396-1

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